Field Listing – Independence

Daftar Hari Kemerdekaan Negara-negara di Dunia…. sumber: CIA – The World Fackbook
All about Indonesia versi CIA – The World Fackbook


Afghanistan 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)
Albania 28 November 1912 (from the Ottoman Empire)
Algeria 5 July 1962 (from France)
American Samoa none (territory of the US)


1278 (formed under the joint suzerainty of the French Count of Foix and the Spanish Bishop of Urgel)

11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
Anguilla none (overseas territory of the UK)
Antigua and Barbuda

1 November 1981 (from UK)

Argentina 9 July 1816 (from Spain)
Armenia 21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Aruba none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Australia 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)


976 (Margravate of Austria established); 17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed); 12 November 1918 (republic proclaimed)

30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Bahamas, The 10 July 1973 (from UK)

15 August 1971 (from UK)

Bangladesh 16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note – 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is known as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Barbados 30 November 1966 (from UK)
Belarus 25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Belgium 4 October 1830 (a provisional government declared independence from the Netherlands); 21 July 1831 (King LEOPOLD I ascended to the throne)


21 September 1981 (from UK)

1 August 1960 (from France)
Bermuda none (overseas territory of the UK)

1907 (became a unified kingdom under its first hereditary king)

Bolivia 6 August 1825 (from Spain)
Bosnia and Herzegovina 1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence completed 1 March 1992; independence declared 3 March 1992)
Botswana 30 September 1966 (from UK)
Brazil 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
British Virgin Islands none (overseas territory of the UK)


1 January 1984 (from UK)

3 March 1878 (as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire); 22 September 1908 (complete independence from the Ottoman Empire)
Burkina Faso 5 August 1960 (from France)

4 January 1948 (from UK)

Burundi 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
Cambodia 9 November 1953 (from France)
Cameroon 1 January 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
Canada 1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (recognized by UK)

Cape Verde

5 July 1975 (from Portugal)
Cayman Islands

none (overseas territory of the UK)
Central African Republic 13 August 1960 (from France)

11 August 1960 (from France)

Chile 18 September 1810 (from Spain)
China 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch’in Dynasty); 1 January 1912 (Manchu Dynasty replaced by a Republic); 1 October 1949 (People’s Republic established)
Christmas Island none (territory of Australia)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands none (territory of Australia)
Colombia 20 July 1810 (from Spain)


6 July 1975 (from France)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the

30 June 1960 (from Belgium)
Congo, Republic of the 15 August 1960 (from France)
Cook Islands

none (became self-governing in free association with New Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full independence by unilateral action)

Costa Rica 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Cote d’Ivoire 7 August 1960 (from France)
Croatia 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
Cuba 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from 1898 to 1902); not acknowledged by the Cuban Government as a day of independence
Cyprus 16 August 1960 (from UK); note – Turkish Cypriots proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975 and independence in 1983, but these proclamations are only recognized by Turkey

Czech Republic

1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)

first organized as a unified state in 10th century; in 1849 became a constitutional monarchy
Djibouti 27 June 1977 (from France)

3 November 1978 (from UK)

Dominican Republic 27 February 1844 (from Haiti)
Ecuador 24 May 1822 (from Spain)
Egypt 28 February 1922 (from UK)
El Salvador 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

Equatorial Guinea

12 October 1968 (from Spain)

24 May 1993 (from Ethiopia)

20 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Ethiopia oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world – at least 2,000 years
European Union

7 February 1992 (Maastricht Treaty signed establishing the EU); 1 November 1993 (Maastricht Treaty entered into force)

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
Faroe Islands none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Fiji 10 October 1970 (from UK)
Finland 6 December 1917 (from Russia)
France 486 (Frankish tribes unified); 843 (Western Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire)

French Polynesia

none (overseas lands of France)

17 August 1960 (from France)
Gambia, The 18 February 1965 (from UK)

9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)

Germany 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights 15 March 1991
Ghana 6 March 1957 (from UK)
Gibraltar none (overseas territory of the UK)
Greece 1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)


none (extensive self-rule as part of the Kingdom of Denmark; foreign affairs is the responsibility of Denmark, but Greenland actively participates in international agreements relating to Greenland)

7 February 1974 (from UK)
Guam none (territory of the US)

15 September 1821 (from Spain)

Guernsey none (British crown dependency)
Guinea 2 October 1958 (from France)
Guinea-Bissau 24 September 1973 (declared); 10 September 1974 (recognized by Portugal)
Guyana 26 May 1966 (from UK)


1 January 1804 (from France)
Holy See (Vatican City)

11 February 1929 (from Italy); note – the three treaties signed with Italy on 11 February 1929 acknowledged, among other things, the full sovereignty of the Vatican and established its territorial extent; however, the origin of the Papal States, which over the years have varied considerably in extent, may be traced back to the 8th century
Honduras 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Hong Kong

none (special administrative region of China)

Hungary 25 December 1000 (crowning of King STEPHEN I, traditional founding date)
Iceland 1 December 1918 (became a sovereign state under the Danish Crown); 17 June 1944 (from Denmark)
India 15 August 1947 (from UK)
Indonesia 17 August 1945 (declared)

note: recognized by the Netherlands on 27 December 1949; in August 2005, the Netherlands announced it recognized de facto Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945

Iran 1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)
Iraq 3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration); note – on 28 June 2004 the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraqi-controlled Government
Ireland 6 December 1921 (from UK by treaty)

Isle of Man

none (British crown dependency)

14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Italy 17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1870)

6 August 1962 (from UK)

Japan 660 B.C. (traditional founding by Emperor JIMMU)
Jersey none (British crown dependency)
Jordan 25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Kazakhstan 16 December 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Kenya 12 December 1963 (from UK)


12 July 1979 (from UK)
Korea, North

15 August 1945 (from Japan)
Korea, South 15 August 1945 (from Japan)

17 February 2008 (from Serbia)

Kuwait 19 June 1961 (from UK)
Kyrgyzstan 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Laos 19 July 1949 (from France)
Latvia 18 November 1918 (from Soviet Russia)


22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)

4 October 1966 (from UK)
Liberia 26 July 1847

24 December 1951 (from UN trusteeship)

Liechtenstein 23 January 1719 (Principality of Liechtenstein established); 12 July 1806 (independence from the Holy Roman Empire)
Lithuania 11 March 1990 (declared); 6 September 1991 (recognized by Soviet Union)
Luxembourg 1839 (from the Netherlands)
Macau none (special administrative region of China)


8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)


26 June 1960 (from France)

6 July 1964 (from UK)
Malaysia 31 August 1957 (from UK)

26 July 1965 (from UK)

Mali 22 September 1960 (from France)
Malta 21 September 1964 (from UK)
Marshall Islands 21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)
Mauritania 28 November 1960 (from France)


12 March 1968 (from UK)

none (territorial overseas collectivity of France)
Mexico 16 September 1810 (declared); 27 September 1821 (recognized by Spain)
Micronesia, Federated States of

3 November 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)

Moldova 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Monaco 1419 (beginning of rule by the House of Grimaldi)
Mongolia 11 July 1921 (from China)
Montenegro 3 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro)


none (overseas territory of the UK)

2 March 1956 (from France)
Mozambique 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)

21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)

Nauru 31 January 1968 (from the Australia-, NZ-, and UK-administered UN trusteeship)
Nepal 1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)
Netherlands 23 January 1579 (the northern provinces of the Low Countries conclude the Union of Utrecht breaking with Spain; on 26 July 1581 they formally declared their independence with an Act of Abjuration; however, it was not until 30 January 1648 and the Peace of Westphalia that Spain recognized this independence)
Netherlands Antilles none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

New Caledonia

none (overseas territory of France); note – a referendum on independence was held in 1998 but did not pass; a new referendum is scheduled for 2014
New Zealand

26 September 1907 (from UK)
Nicaragua 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

3 August 1960 (from France)

Nigeria 1 October 1960 (from UK)
Niue on 19 October 1974, Niue became a self-governing parliamentary government in free association with New Zealand
Norfolk Island none (territory of Australia)
Northern Mariana Islands none (commonwealth in political union with the US)


7 June 1905 (Norway declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union)

1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)
Pakistan 14 August 1947 (from British India)

1 October 1994 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)

Panama 3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from Spain 28 November 1821)
Papua New Guinea 16 September 1975 (from the Australian-administered UN trusteeship)
Paraguay 14 May 1811 (from Spain)
Peru 28 July 1821 (from Spain)


12 June 1898 (independence proclaimed from Spain); 4 July 1946 (from the US)
Pitcairn Islands

none (overseas territory of the UK)
Poland 11 November 1918 (republic proclaimed)

1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)

Puerto Rico none (territory of the US with commonwealth status)
Qatar 3 September 1971 (from UK)
Romania 9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
Russia 24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)


1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)
Saint Barthelemy

none (overseas collectivity of France)
Saint Helena none (overseas territory of the UK)
Saint Kitts and Nevis

19 September 1983 (from UK)

Saint Lucia 22 February 1979 (from UK)
Saint Martin none (overseas collectivity of France)
Saint Pierre and Miquelon none (territorial collectivity of France; has been under French control since 1763)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 27 October 1979 (from UK)


1 January 1962 (from New Zealand-administered UN trusteeship)
San Marino

3 September AD 301
Sao Tome and Principe 12 July 1975 (from Portugal)
Saudi Arabia

23 September 1932 (unification of the kingdom)

Senegal 4 April 1960 (from France); note – complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
Serbia 5 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro)
Seychelles 29 June 1976 (from UK)
Sierra Leone 27 April 1961 (from UK)


9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)

1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
Slovenia 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
Solomon Islands

7 July 1978 (from UK)

Somalia 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)
South Africa 31 May 1910 (Union of South Africa formed from four British colonies: Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal, and Orange Free State); 31 May 1961 (republic declared) 27 April 1994 (majority rule)
Spain the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began in the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain
Sri Lanka 4 February 1948 (from UK)


1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)

25 November 1975 (from the Netherlands)
Svalbard none (territory of Norway)

6 September 1968 (from UK)

Sweden 6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)
Switzerland 1 August 1291 (founding of the Swiss Confederation)
Syria 17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)
Tajikistan 9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)


26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964

1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)
Timor-Leste 28 November 1975 (independence proclaimed from Portugal); note – 20 May 2002 is the official date of international recognition of Timor-Leste’s independence from Indonesia

27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

Tokelau none (territory of New Zealand)
Tonga 4 June 1970 (from UK protectorate)
Trinidad and Tobago 31 August 1962 (from UK)
Tunisia 20 March 1956 (from France)


29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

27 October 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Turks and Caicos Islands none (overseas territory of the UK)

1 October 1978 (from UK)

Uganda 9 October 1962 (from UK)
Ukraine 24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
United Arab Emirates 2 December 1971 (from UK)
United Kingdom England has existed as a unified entity since the 10th century; the union between England and Wales, begun in 1284 with the Statute of Rhuddlan, was not formalized until 1536 with an Act of Union; in another Act of Union in 1707, England and Scotland agreed to permanently join as Great Britain; the legislative union of Great Britain and Ireland was implemented in 1801, with the adoption of the name the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the Anglo-Irish treaty of 1921 formalized a partition of Ireland; six northern Irish counties remained part of the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland and the current name of the country, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, was adopted in 1927

United States

4 July 1776 (from Great Britain)

25 August 1825 (from Brazil)
Uzbekistan 1 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

30 July 1980 (from France and UK)

Venezuela 5 July 1811 (from Spain)
Vietnam 2 September 1945 (from France)
Virgin Islands none (territory of the US)
Wallis and Futuna none (overseas territory of France)


22 May 1990 (Republic of Yemen was established with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and the Marxist-dominated People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]); note – previously North Yemen became independent in November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and became a republic with the overthrow of the theocratic Imamate in 1962; South Yemen became independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)


24 October 1964 (from UK)

18 April 1980 (from UK)

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